Virunga National Park
COUNTRY: Democratic Republic of the Congo
NAME: Virunga National Park / (Le Parc National des Virunga)
NATURAL WORLD HERITAGE TRANSBOUNDARY SERIAL SITE IN DANGER
1979: Natural World Heritage Site, inscribed under Natural Criteria vii, ix and x.
1994+: Listed as a World Heritage site in Danger because of civil conflict, invasion and degradation.
1996: Parc National des Virunga designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar
Convention (800,000 ha).
IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORY II National Park
- UNESCO WHC Session 38, June 2014:
- Production Sharing Agreement extract in English
- Contract Block V DRC – between contrat_rdc_dominion_soco_cohydro
- Arrêté exploration SOCO
- AR Pétrole
- Osti et al 2011 – Oil and gas development and the World Heritage network and wider protected area network in sub-Saharan Africa
- Communique de Soco DRC 12 Juin 2014
Conflict and Natural Resources
- International Crisis Group: Africa Report N. 188 – Black Gold in the Congo: Threat to Stability or Development Opportunity? READ FULL REPORT – VERSION COMPLETE PDF
Although it should provide development opportunities, renewed oil interest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) represents a real threat to stability in a still vulnerable post-conflict country. Exploration has begun, but oil prospecting is nurturing old resentments among local communities and contributing to border tensions with neighbouring countries. If oil reserves are confirmed in the east, this would exacerbate deep-rooted conflict dynamics in the Kivus. An upsurge in fighting since the start of 2012, including the emergence of a new rebellion in North Kivu and the resumption of armed groups’ territorial expansion, has further complicated stability in the east, which is the new focus for oil exploration.
Stakeholder-related risks in the extractive sector have risen rapidly over the last two decades. Time and again, companies have experienced how negative environmental impacts – such as a spill from a tailings dam – can generate significant negative social impacts as well, for example on local community health and livelihoods. Local communities’ reactions to these impacts can quickly escalate from complaints to protests and road blockades, raising the risks of the company or its security providers using heavyhanded tactics that can lead to even more serious impacts, such as injury or even deaths.
Business and Nature
- Nature underpins economic growth, human development, and well-being. It is instrumental in building today’s economic system and represents the core foundation in the transition to a green economy. In turn, the transition to a green economy will strengthen the foundations of nature by reducing the pressures of economic activities on biodiversity and ecosystems.
Nature and its Role in the Transition to a Green Economy – ten Brink P., Mazza L., Badura T., Kettunen M. and Withana S. (2012)
TEEB is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme and supported by the following donors.
- Toward Africa’s green future (English): From the world’s highest mountain ranges to the lowland plains, and from the great oceans and coastal wetlands to agricultural landscapes, nations and communities rely on the bounty and services of natural ecosystems. Biological resources and the goods and ecosystem services they provide underpin every aspect of human life and livelihoods, from food and water security to general well-being and spiritual fulfillment. This report reviews the World Bank support to biodiversity conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade (2003-2012), and presents key lessons and directions for the Bank’s future biodiversity-related investments. The Africa region is presently undergoing a fundamental transformation. With a firm focus on biodiversity as a component of inclusive green growth, the World Bank is well positioned to continue and strengthen its role as a leading supporter of African countries’ conservation efforts.
Toward Africa’s green future. Washington D.C. – The Worldbank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2012/10/16795968/toward-africas-green-future
- Africa may be showing impressive headline growth, but too many of our people remain stuck in poverty. This year’s Africa Progress Report finds that if we want to accelerate Africa’s transformation, then we have to significantly boost our agriculture and fisheries, which together provide livelihoods for roughly two-thirds of all Africans.
Business and Human Rights
- UN “Protect, Respect and Remedy”
- UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
- Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations of States in the area ofEconomic, Social andCultural Rights
- Members of the European Parliament – Letter on Virunga National Park
- CHAMBRE DES REPRÉSENTANTS DE BELGIQUE -COMPTE RENDU INTÉGRAL – Mercredi 18-04-2012
- EU Joint Motion for Resolution
- German Parliament – Motion Eng
- Arrêté ministériel n°044/CAB/MIN/ECN-EF/2006 du 08 décembre 2006 portant création organisation et fonctionnement du Groupe d’Etudes Environnementales du Congo « GEEC» , en sigle. JO. RDC n° 2 Col 23
- Courrier du Ministre de l’ECNT au Centre du Patrimoine Mondial (UNESCO)Face aux nombreuses inquiétudes que suscitent les recherches pétrolières dans le Parc national des Virunga, un site du patrimoine mondial en RD Congo, le Ministre José Endundo expose dans un courrier adressé à l’UNESCO les mesures prises afin d’aider les décideurs congolais à effectuer le meilleur choix pour le futur des populations du Nord Kivu.
Local Communities and Organizations
- La découverte du pétrole dans le Graben Albertin – Défis, enjeux et perspectives économico-environnementales
This work (In French) hinges on the oil discovery in the Albertine rift zone : Challenges, issues and economic-environmental perspectives. It is conceived within the framework of serving as a proposition of the decision taking of the government as well as other deciders interested by the presence of oil in the East of the DRC. The present scientific contribution is a product of funds coming from the members of Forest and Environmental Friends for Research and Development, in short FEFRED Relief Wildlife. It is a NGO of Congolese environmental civil society for the management of the natural resources which extend over in the central Albertin (vast ecosystem of Virunga).
- Vitshumbi Communiqué final
- Déclaration finale de l’atelier de Butembo
- Declaration Atelier Butembo: Chefs Coutumiers Decembre 2013
- Declaration de Goma 31 Janvier 2014, SC du Nord Kivu
- Declaration of RRN, 26th of February 2014, Environmental Civil Society DRC:
- June 2014: DRC Civil Society PR_Withdraw_SOCO-EN / FR version: Communiqué de presse_retrait_SOCO-FR